[Mac] Terminal commands

DevDr 2022. 10. 15. 12:26


man [command] Show the help manual of the command
[command] -h Get help about a command
open [file] Opens a file
nano [file] Opens the Terminal editor
sudo [command] Run command with the security privileges of the super user
~ (Tilde) Home directory
.. (Double Period) Parent directory
. (Single Period) Current directory
/ (Forward Slash) Top level directory
exit End a shell session
Shift + Cmd + V Paste the selection
Option + Shift + Cmd + C Copy plain text
Ctrl + _ Undo the last command
Ctrl + Z Puts whatever you're running into a suspended background process
Ctrl + Y Paste whatever was cut by the last command
Ctrl + B Move cursor one character backward
Ctrl + F Move cursor one character forward
Option + ← Move cursor one word backward
Option + → Move cursor one word forward
Ctrl + D Exit the current shell
Ctrl + C Kill whatever you're running
Ctrl + L Clear the screen
Esc + T Swap the last two words before the cursor
Ctrl + T Swap the last two characters before the cursor
Ctrl + W Delete the word before the cursor
Ctrl + K Clear the line after the cursor
Ctrl + U Clear the line before the cursor
Ctrl + E Go to the end of the line you're currently typing on
Ctrl + A Go to the beginning of the line you're currently typing on
Command Action
Tab Auto-complete file and folder names
<cmd1> <cmd2>
<cmd> > <file> Direct the output of <cmd> into <file>
<cmd> > > <file> Appends the output of <cmd> to <file>
head <file> Output the first 10 lines of <file>
less <file> Output the contents of <file> using the less command that supports pagination and more
cat <file> Output the content of <file>
grep -rl "<text>" <dir> Search for all files containing <text> inside <dir>
grep "<text>" <file> Output all occurrences of <text> inside <file> (add -i for case insensitivity)
find <dir> -name <"file"> Find all files named <file> inside <dir>. Use wildcards (*) to search for parts of filenames
Environment Variable or Path  
export PATH=$PATH:absolute/path to/program/ Execute a program via terminal only in your current session. If you use a program regularly, add the path to shell configuration file.
echo $PATH >path.txt Export the path directory to a text file
echo $PATH Check the value of the PATH variable which storea a list of directories with executable files
$echo Tells the terminal to print something and show it to you
printenv Display a list of currently set environment variables. Also tells you which shell you're using
brew cleanup Remove stale lock files and outdated packages for all formula and casks.
brew unpin [installed_formula] Unpin to upgrade a package
brew pin [installed_formula] Pin a formula from getting upgraded
brew outdated --cask Search for outdated cask
brew outdated --formula Search for outdated formula
brew outdated <formula> <cask>
brew upgrade <formula> <cask>
brew search text /regex/
brew deps <formula> <cask>
brew list --cask List only installed cask
brew list --formula List only installed formulas
brew uninstall <formula> cask>
brew install <formula> <cask>
brew help List of useful homebrew formula and cask commands
brew doctor Check brew for potential problems
traceroute [hostname] Identify the path and the hops traversed by the packets from your device to the destination address
ifconfig en0 View your device IP and MAC address
arp -a View a list of all devices on your local network. It will show you the IP and MAC address of all the devices
scp <file><user>@<host>:/remote/path Copy <file> to a remote <host>
ssh <username>@<host> Establish SSH connection to <host> with user <username>
curl -O <url/to/file> Download file via HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP
whois <domain> Output whois info for a domain
ping <host> Ping host and display status
ps -ax grep <appname>
kill PID Quit process with ID <PID>. You'll see PID as a column in the Activity Monitor
top -o rsize Sort top by memory usage
top -ocpu -s 5 Display processes sorted by CPU usage, updating every 5 seconds
top Display live information about currently running processes
ps -aux Shows all the processes with %cpu, %mem, page in, PID, and command
ps -ax Output currently running processes. Here, a shows processes from all users and x shows processes that are not connected with the Terminal
chown <user>:<group> <file> Change the ownership of a file to user and group. Add -R to include folder contents
chmod -R 600 <dir> Change the permission of a folder (and its contents) to 600
chmod 755 <file> Change the permission of a file to 755
ls -ld/<dir> Display the read, write, and access permission of a particular folder
ls -ld Display the default permission for a home directory
Command History  
!! Execute the last command typed
![value] Execute the last command typed that starts with a value
history n Shows the previous commands you've typed. Add a number to limit to the last n items
Ctrl + R Search through previously used commands
File and Directory Management  
mv *.png ~/<dir> Move all PNG files from current folder to a different folder
mv -i <file> <dir> Optional -i flag to warn you before overwriting the file
mv <file> <dir> Move a file to the folder, possibly by overwriting an existing file
mv <file> <newfilename> Move/rename
rm <file1> <file2> <file3> Delete multiple files without any confirmation
rm -f <file> Force removal without confirmation
rm -i <file> Delete a file only when you give confirmation
rm <file> Delete a file (This deletes the file permanently; use with caution.)
ditto -V [folder path][new folder] Copy the contents of a folder to new folder. In here "-V" print a line of status for every file copied
cp <file1> <file2> <file3>/Users/<dir> Copy multiple files to a folder
cp -i <file><dir> Prompts you before copying a file with a warning overwrite message
cp -R <dir> <"new dir"> Copy a folder to a new folder with spaces in the filename
cp <file>~/<dir>/<newfile> Copy a file to the folder and rename the copied file
cp <file> <newfile> Copy a file to the current folder
cp <file> <dir> Copy a file to the folder
touch <file> Create a new file without any extension
rm -R <dir> Delete a folder and its contents
rmdir <dir> Delete a folder (only works on empty folders)
mkdir "<dir>" Create a folder with a space in the filename
mkdir <dir1> <dir2> <dir3> Create several folders at once
mkdir -p <dir>/<dir> Create nested folders
mkdir <dir> Create new folder named <dir>
File Size and Disk Space  
df -H Calculate free disk space in powers of 1,000 (as opposed to 1,024)
df -h Calculate your system's free disk space
du -sk* sort -nr
du -s Display an entry for each specified file
du -sh [folder] Human readable output of all files in a directory
du List usage for each subdirectory and its contents
List Directory Contents  
ls -la List detailed directory contents, including hidden files
ls -lo List the file names with size, owner, and flags
ls -lh Long listing with human readable file sizes in KB, MB, or GB
ls -lt List the files sorted by time modified (most recent first)
ls -l / List of the file system from root with symbolic links
ls -l List in a long format. Includes file mode, owner and group name, date and time file was modified, pathname, and more
ls -S Sort files or entries by size
ls -F Display a / (slash) immediately after each path that is a directory, * (asterisk) after executable programs or scripts, and @ after a symbolic link
ls -1 Output the list of files in one entry per line format
ls -a List all entries including those with .(period) and ..(double period)
ls -C Force multi-column output of the listing
ls Display the name of files and subdirectories in the directory
Change Directory  
cd ../.. Move up two levels
cd .. Move up to the parent directory
pwd Show your working directory
cd - Previous directory or folder you last browsed
cd / Root of the drive
cd ~ Home directory
cd [folder] Change directory, e.g. cd Documents
cd Home directory

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